New issue 1 (10) / 2020
Contents of the issue:
LAW ON FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITY: SYSTEMATIC APPROACH, UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
The article describes the main provisions of the Law of the Republic of Belarus «On Forensic Expert Activity», adopted at the end of 2019. The author analyzes the problematic aspects in practical activities, which are addressed by the adoption of this legal act. New concepts and their definitions introduced by the Law (forensic activity, forensic expertise, forensic expert division, etc.) are considered, and some aspects of adjusting the provisions of the procedural codes of the Republic of Belarus relating to forensic activity are disclosed.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669633
THE GRAPHOLOGICAL THEORY OF GIROLAMO MORETTI
General data of Girolamo’s Moretti biography are given, the development of his ideas is based on the conception of graphic signs. The basic conception of the graphological theory of Girolamo Moretti is outlined. Description is also given of the basic guidelines in the articulation of his method in regard to his instinctive way of approaching the writer’s personality through handwriting analysis.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669634
THEORY AND PRACTICE OF FORENSIC RESEARCH OF MANUSCRIPTS MADE BY CHINESE HIEROGLYPHIC WRITING
The article deals with topical issues of the theory and practice of forensic research of manuscripts written in Chinese hieroglyphic script. The author highlights the current level of development of this area of forensic handwriting expertise. It is noted that it is a study based on special knowledge in the field of judicial handwriting and linguistics in order to establish facts (actual circumstances) that have evidentiary value in criminal, administrative, arbitration and civil cases. The successful solution of the tasks of this examination is largely due to a comprehensive approach to the implementation of individual stages of the study.
Based on the analysis of practical activities, a brief description of the considered handwriting objects is given, and the features that ensure their specificity are described. The analysis of the properties and identification features of hieroglyphic handwriting, which allows us to consider it a separate and very complex object of forensic knowledge, is carried out. In order to increase the objectivity of their research and increase the degree of validity of the expert’s conclusions, some features of the private method of studying manuscripts made in Chinese characters are revealed.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669635
PROSPECTIVE WAYS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE ENHANCEMENT OF FORENSIC HANDWRITING EXAMINATION OF COPIES OF DOCUMENTS
The article discusses the problems questions of forensic handwriting examination of copies of documents which are connected with specific object and tasks of examination, expert competence, possibility of establishing facts and signs of montage and counterfeiting technologies, assessment of copies’ quality and information value, detection and interpretation of identification and diagnostic features of handwriting, particular qualities of expert’s opinion and resolution. The advanced ways of enhancement of theoretical and practical principals of forensic handwriting examination by images in copies of documents were set out based on the domestic scientific developments and expert practice. The experimental researches are played a fundamental role in detection of correlations between features which are presented in copied and original handwritten texts and signatures.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669636
FORENSIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS AS A MEANS OF OBTAINING SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE AND PREVENTING EXPERT ERRORS
The article deals with the content of educational programs for retraining in expert specialties in relation to certain characteristics of the professional activity of a forensic expert. The author conducts a systematic analysis of the processes of formulating expert conclusions and preventing potential expert errors through training. The article analyzes the possibilities of evaluating promising areas of forensic expertise through the prism of the educational process.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669638
FORENSIC COMPUTER SCIENCE AS A NEW DISCIPLINE FOR THE TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF HIGH-TECH CRIMES
The rapid development of information and communication technologies makes the problem of the prevention of Internet crime relevant and relevant. In this regard, it is necessary to train highly qualified specialists to investigate cybercrimes that possess both legal and technical knowledge. This requires improved digital literacy for lawyers. To this end, this article proposes to introduce a special training course for specialists for an in-depth study of the basics of forensics, information law and the basics of computer technology. The place of this course in the educational process is shown.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669639
METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CRIMINAL LAW SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT ON THE BASIS OF AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH
The application of an interdisciplinary approach in the course of scientific research is a prerequisite for obtaining new knowledge and solving problematic issues in a particular field of science. At the same time, researchers often encounter certain methodological problems associated with the fact that the process of applying the interdisciplinary approach in practice is not fully understood. As a result of the generalization and analysis of previously known literature data on the interdisciplinary theme universalize system of methodological principles of purposeful development of any criminal sciences on the base of using the potential of other criminal sciences has been developed.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669640
Valery Chuchko, Vyacheslav Semyonov, Andrey Tetyuev, Tatiana Domoratskaya
SOME ISSUES OF THE BIOMECHANICS WHEN A PERSON FALLS OUT FROM THE BODY OF A MOVING CAR
We have analyzed the fatal cases of the victims falling out of the body of a moving car in the conditions of the sharp turn or emergency braking. Biomechanical aspects of this type of transportation injury were studied. An equality was established that defines the conditions necessary for maintaining the balance of the human in the car body during a sharp turn of the car. Also we propose an equation for determining the amount of energy released during the collision of the human with the road surface after the falling out of a car on a curved or straight section of the road.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669642
Igor Nikolaichik, Andrey Chetin, Elena Nikitina
FORENSIC MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF THE SEVERITY OF BODILY HARM WITH OVARIAN INJURY
The article analyses the results of forensic examinations aimed at the estimation of the severity of bodily harm with ovarian injury. Literature data on the causes and morphology of hemorrhages in the ovarian tissue (ovarian apoplexy) are presented. Practical recommendations for conducting forensic examinations in the cases of ovariorrhexis and hemorrhages of the ovary are proposed.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669644
Nikolay Trifonov, Anatoliy Nikitin
THE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE DEPRECIATION OF MOTORCYCLES FOR THE FORENSIC EXAMINATION
The article presents the results of the study of depreciation of different types of motorcycles in the market of the Republic of Belarus using the amortization fund method known from practice of vehicle valuation. The results of the study have a high statistical reliability. The possibility of using the amortization fund method to calculate the depreciation of motorcycles over time during the forensic examination has been demonstrated.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669645
USING HIGH SPEED VIDEO CAMERA IN MEDICAL-CRIMINALISTIC AND BALLISTIC EXAMINATIONS
In given work is considered method of the study experimental отстрелов by means of removals by speediest video camera Phantom V2640 is considered. The purpose of the study was visual and topographical discovery of additional factors of shot, their location and sediment areas depending on the distance. In process of the study the difference was also revealed in mechanism of the formation trace shot, in comparison with classical variant which is described in special and scientific literature.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669646
DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC-BOTANICAL EXPERTISE WITH DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS
Illegal forest management is one of the most difficult for investigation encroachments on the natural environment. In this regard, the most important stage of proof procedure is to schedule a complex of forensic expertises, the leading place among which, as practice shows, is taken by forensic-botanical expertise with dendrochronological analysis (hereinafter referred to as FBE DA). The execution of FBE DA allows the reliable determination of the age of the tree, the time of failure/cutting (year and season), the category of living condition, the place of growth, the belonging of individual elements of wood to a single tree, the sequence of damages inflicted to the tree, etc. In the work the review of the basic results in the field of forensic dendrochronology, gathered by the state institution «Scientific and Practical Centre of the State Forensic Examination Committee of the Republic of Belarus». The authors examine the contemporary condition and development prospects of FBE DA viewed as one of the effective instruments of counteracting crimes in the forest sector.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42669649