New issue 2 (15) / 2022
Contents of the issue:
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF «EFFECTIVENESS OF FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITY»
The approaches to determining the effectiveness of forensic expert activities are analyzed in the article. The author sets its definition through the achievement of the goals for this activity in relation to the levels of its system. Appropriate objectives are formulated. It is noted that the expenses of forensic expert activities are not always commensurate with the value of the received result or the amount of caused damage (value of the claim), and also can’t be correlated with the legality of procedural decisions.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592596)
Viktor Zvyagin, Rafkat Kalimullin, Olga Galitskaya, Elena Anushkina
CATEGORIES OF SIZES OF THYROID, CRICOID AND ARYTENOID CARTILAGE OF THE LARYNX OF AN ADULT
We studied our own morphometric data on arytenoid cartilages (male – 254, female – 106) and data from literary sources on the thyroid (male – 35, female – 35) and cricoid (male – 37, female – 30) cartilages. Categories of sizes (according to 22 parameters) of these cartilages, taking into account gender, have been developed, which allow a 5-interval evaluation of measurement data (very small, small, medium, large, very large) and the identification of individualizing features. The technique is intended for forensic medical experts in cases of examination of laryngeal injuries and identification of a person.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592597)
ENZYME ACTIVITY IN THE BLOOD SERUM OF CORPSES
The article is a review of the literature data on the diagnostic significance of determining the activity of enzymes in the blood serum of corpses. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase increases after death to varying degrees due to violation of the integrity of cell membranes and tissues. The activity of enzymes depends on the duration of the agonal period, the time between death and autopsy, temperature, the degree of erythrocyte hemolysis, and other factors. In forensic medicine, the reference values of enzyme activity used in clinical practice are indicative. Enzyme activity should be interpreted only in conjunction with the results of autopsy, anamnesis, histological and other studies. To exclude or reduce the impact of various factors on the activity of enzymes, the possibility of using other biological fluids should be considered.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592598)
Sergey Pozniak, Oksana Daineko, Yaroslav Kovalev
CALCULATION OF THE DEGREE OF PHYSICAL WEAR AND TEAR OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF RESIDENTIAL ESTATE CONSTRUCTION OBJECTS AFFECTED BY EXPLOSIONS AND FIRES BASED ON THE ASSESSMENT OF IDENTIFIED DEFECTS
In the article, the authors, based on experimental studies, show the possibility of solving an urgent problem related to determining the cost of residential estate construction objects affected by explosions and fires, as the most numerous and frequently occurring man-made accidents. Additional information on the assessment of the quality of wooden building structures and their condition is provided. The authors propose the use of unified approaches in conducting forensic construction and technical examination of this kind based on the assessment of the identified defects.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592599)
Leonid Melnik, Roman Skachek
CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL TRACES OF CRIMES COMMITTED USING CRYPTOCURRENCIES AND ELECTRONIC MONEY
Based on the results of the analysis of the practice of investigating crimes committed using cryptocurrencies and electronic money, a classification of digital traces formed during their preparation, commission and concealment is presented. The use of the presented classification is relevant in determining the most likely directions for searching, detecting, fixing and seizing digital traces, as well as in the development of special tactics of investigative and other procedural actions.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592600)
EXAMINATION OF THE DETAILS OF DOCUMENTS TREATED WITH NINHYDRIN
This article presents the results of studying the effects of ninhydrin agents on the morphological and physical properties of strokes. The strokes were applied/made on paper with various writing materials (pastes, ballpoint pen inks, printing inks, stamp inks, inks for inkjet printing, electrophotographic toners, etc.) and were treated with solutions, sprays and ninhydride aerosols used in modern forensic practice. It has been established that the most destructive effect on the morphology of strokes is caused by agents based on ninhydrin and such solvents as ethyl acetate, acetone and acetic acid.
Treatment by all means with ninhydrin affects the nature of the infrared luminescence of strokes. It has also been found that polymer-based writing materials, specifically toners and pastes, are most susceptible to property
The obtained results of the study will help to avoid an erroneous conclusions in the process of determining the method of performing the requisites, establishing the fact of changing the original content and identifying the writing tools.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592601
Stanislav Bobovkin, Olga Didenko
MODERN OBJECTS OF FORENSIC HANDWRITING EXAMINATION
The article is devoted to the study of modern objects of forensic handwriting examination. Based on the analysis of forensic-expert practice at the present stage, questioning of experts of the relevant specialty, as well as the study of scientific and methodological literature, new specific research objects of significant scientific and practical interest are highlighted.
Particular attention is paid to the objects that are widespread in the Russian Federation, CIS and BRICS countries in the XXI century. It is noted that the specifics and methodological features of the study predetermine a separate consideration in handwriting studies of the following objects: images of various handwriting realizations (texts, brief notes and signatures); manuscripts of foreign language composition (executed using types of writing different from Russian modern cursive writing, such as Chinese Hieroglyphic script, Arabic script, etc.); small volume manuscripts, executed by stylus or other writing materials directly on a tablet; graffiti; pictorial signatures, etc.
As a result of the study, the authors put forward a proposal to review and expand the list of objects of forensic handwriting examination, taking into account the current needs of expert and forensic practice. In addition to the above, it is proposed to intensify scientific developments in the field of theoretical and methodological support of modern objects of expert examination.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592602)
Ivan Shumskiy, Andrey Dumskiy, Igor Duboiskiy
ADVANTAGES OF VIDEO SPECTRAL REGULA COMPARATORS USED FOR THE EXAMINATION OF INTERSECTING STROKES
Based on experimental research, the authors of the article demonstrate the possibilities of video spectral comparators produced by Regula in solving one of the most demanded and difficult tasks of forensic technical examination of documents - determination of the sequence of strokes. This article provides examples of the study of intersecting electrophotographic (laser printer) and handwritten (ballpoint pen ink) strokes made in different sequences. Complex cases when electrophotographic strokes are made in toner saving mode, which makes it difficult to solve the forensic task have also been considered. The conducted research has shown the efficiency of the Regula equipment in solving the designated tasks by «non-destructive» methods, which ensures document safety and the possibility to conduct of repeated and additional expert studies.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592603)
FORENSIC LINGUISTIC EXAMINATION OF VERBAL AGGRESSION STATEMENTS IN THE FORM OF THREATS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
The article is dedicated to the forensic linguistic examination of threat statements as a form of verbal aggression, that is an integral part of various criminal offenses associated with the use of targeted violence in foreign countries. A distinction is made between the lexical meanings of the word «threat» into the concepts of threat, as a menacing speech act, and a threat in the broad sense of the word. Various types of threats depending on their discourse, semantics and pragmatics are analyzed in the article. Emotivity as one of the main signs of a threat carried out in modern conditions both in live communication mode and in the format of digital online-communication, including its non-verbal components, is touched in the article. Particular attention is paid to non-verbal components presented in the form of graphemes, pictograms, emoticons and emojis, which allow saving speech tools and mental efforts in the format of digital online communication.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592604)
Anna Lappo, Sergey Borodin, Evgeny Lyubinin
ABOUT SOME ASPECTS OF THE USE OF AUTOMATED DACTYLOSCOPIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN SOLVING A CRIME IN HOT PURSUIT
The article considers an example of the disclosure of a serious crime against sexual integrity using an automated fingerprint information system, certain aspects of the tactics of conducting an inspection of the crime scene fixing a trace picture. Attention is focused on the need for the integrated use of the forces and means at the disposal of law enforcement agencies, determining the procedure for their use based on a combination of significant elements of the forensic characteristics of a particular crime. As a result of the conducted research, the hypothesis of increasing the probability of solving a crime and identifying a person who committed it in the shortest possible time as a result of the use of advanced informational technologies has been confirmed.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592605)
Valentina Avdei, Aleksandеr Zarakhovich, Irina Evstafieva
ARRHYTHMOGENIC RIGHT VENTRICULAR DYSPLASIA (A CASE FROM
FORENSIC MEDICAL PRACTICE
The article describes a case of sudden death of a young woman from forensic medical practice. The literature data on possible causes, morphological and clinical manifestations of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), methods of diagnosing of this pathology at the present stage of medicine development are presented. The theories of occurrence, frequency of occurrence, classification of ARVD are described. Attention is drawn to the updated recommendations for the diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment of this pathology. The main diagnostic categories of ARVD in clinical practice are listed. The need for an integrated approach to identify this disease and substantiate a forensic medical diagnosis is indicated.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592606)
Aleksey Lutsevich, Andrey Krylov, Sergej Polukoshko, Irina Pechko
EOSINOPHILIC MYOCARDITIS AS A CAUSE OF DEATH
(A CASE FROM EXPERT PRACTICE)
The article is devoted to the issue of eosinophilic myocarditis, since this disease is very rare. The authors conducted a study of the literature data on the causes and diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis. Attention is drawn to the possibility of practical application of this work, since it describes a case from practice with a demonstration of the macroscopic appearance of this disease, histological preparations.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=49592607)
FEATURES OF THE INSPECTION OF THE CRIME SCENE WHEN USING FIREARM
The article analyzes the features of the main tasks of inspection of the crime scene, which consist in clarifying the situation and events, fixing traces and objects of a ballistic nature, identifying material evidence and traces that indicate the identity of the offender, the nature and mechanism of the crime, his motives. The circumstances under which the analysis of traces and objects of a ballistic nature, in conjunction with other traces found at the crime scene, makes it possible to develop the most reliable versions of the incident event are described.
In accordance with the norms of the Criminal Procedure Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the types and methods of fixing ballistic traces and objects are listed, tactics and principles of inspection of the crime scene where a firearm was used are indicated. Some problems that complicate the disclosure and investigation of criminal cases, for the resolution of which the participation of a ballistics expert in certain investigative actions is crucial are identified.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru (eLIBRARY.RU https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367041)