New issue 1 (14) / 2022
Contents of the issue:
RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF FORENSIC ORGANIZATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: FORENSIC EXPERT SERVICE OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS (1919-2013)
The article examines the history of the origin, formation and development of forensic organizations on the example of the forensic service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The conducted retrospective analysis allowed to consider the historical path of the origin, formation and development of the forensic service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and to highlight the historical stages. It also studied the best practical experience and scientific achievements of forensic units in solving and investigating crimes at different historical stages. The article identifies the pioneers of forensic examination who have made an invaluable contribution to the organization and implementation of the practical activities of the forensic service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The content of the publication is based on the documents of the Museum of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and personal memories of the first employees of the forensic service.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367027)
LEGAL SOURCES OF FORENSIC PSYCHIATRIC EXAMINATION IN THE STATUTES OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA
The paper presents an analytical analysis of articles of the Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1529, 1566 and 1588 regulating the legal attitude towards people with mental disorders. The content of the articles of Statutes is analyzed from the point of view of modern forensic psychiatry. The advanced level of the Belarusian lawyers of the sixteenth century is shown in terms of codification of the forensic psychiatric innovations.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367028)
Oksana Makas, Valery Konstantinov, Gennadiy Zaluzhny
3D MODELING OF PHYSICAL OBJECTS OF COMPLEX CONFIGURATION BASED ON LOCAL GEOMETRIC GRIDS
The authors of the article propose a new methodology for creating three-dimensional solid-state models of the studied parts (objects) with the maximum degree of reliability of geometric and topological characteristics in relation to the original object, by integrating a virtual image extracted from digital recording when scanning the surface of the part into the сomputer aided design (CAD) solid modeling space. The research presented in this article is an attempt to develop some of the tools needed for such an approach.
The process of 3D digitization of the surface of the studied objects and the translation of data into virtual 3D models in the form of dense 3D point clouds of points and grids is performed using the Artec Space Spider portable 3D metrology scanner, as well as specialized Artec Studio software. Solid-state reconstruction and engineering analysis of virtual 3D images integrated into CAD is performed in the SolidWorks 3D hybrid modeling environment.
The results show that the proposed methodology of 3D models reconstruction is effective in transferring virtual images from 3D grid to the solid-state modeling space for parts with complex geometric and topological characteristics.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367029)
SOLVING INDIVIDUAL TASKS OF FORENSIC TRACOLOGICAL EXAMINATION USING EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING METHODS
The article discusses the theoretical foundations and practical aspects associated with the use of such general scientific methods of cognition as experiment and modeling during forensic tracological examinations, analyzes the basic principles of for using trace models in solving identification and diagnostic tasks, and the choice of optimal material for the manufacture of experimental traces.
The author formulates a conclusion about the high effectiveness of the integrated application of these methods in conducting forensic tracological examinations based on a positive example from the practical activities of the expert units of the Republic of Belarus.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367030)
Ruslan Ropot, Andrej Sushko
FORENSIC BALLISTIC DIAGNOSIS OF DAMAGES CAUSED BY SHOT FROM PNEUMATIC WEAPONS
The article proposes a system of signs established as a result of experimental firing from pneumatic weapons with various bullets at various obstacles. The identified features will improve the reliability of solving diagnostic expert tasks, as well as the effectiveness of establishing the circumstances of firing (the range and direction of shots, the type of bullets used) during the inspection of the scene of the incident, which will increase the effectiveness of using special knowledge in solving and investigating crimes.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367033)
FORENSIC HANDWRITING EXAMINATION OF DIGITAL HANDWRITTEN BIOMETRIC SIGNATURE
The article reveals the issues related to the possibility of studying a new object of forensic handwriting examination – a digital handwritten biometric signature. The information about the signature execution technology and the structure of its data is provided. On the basis of experimental research, the features of the analysis of general, diagnostic and particular signs of a signature based on its image and dynamics data are revealed. The experimental results suggest that a digital handwritten biometric signature is a more informative object in comparison with a traditional («wet») signature. Special software allows to study the signature in the process of its reproduction, analyze the speed and pressure characteristics, use the signs displayed in non-pressing strokes in the process of expert examination. The study of a digital handwritten signature makes it possible to effectively solve the identification tasks of forensic handwriting examination. Prospective ways of further scientific research are defined in the article, especially in terms of the use of mathematical methods.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367034)
Andrey Tetyuev, Vyacheslav Semyonov, Olga Yudina
THE TECHNIQUE OF HEART DESSECTION DURING THE ADULT FORENSIC AUTOPSY IN CASES OF SUDDEN DEATH
The article describes the heart dissection technique during the forensic autopsy of adults. The heart research methodology is based on the recommendations of the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology 2017, scientific societies of pathologists, publications on the autopsy technique of recent decades. The achievements of morphologists of the second half of the 20th century are taken into account.
The method of heart dissection provides for a comprehensive examination of the coronary vessels, myocardium and valve apparatus. The possibility of studying the elements of the conducting system is demonstrated. The technique ensures the preservation of anatomical and topographic relationships of the heart morphological structures and the possibility of its re-examination.
The main steps are the examination of the coronary arteries, the execution of three transverse incisions from the apex to the middle of the ventricles, the opening of the heart «along the blood flow», taking into account the localization of the main nodes of the conducting system and the features of the study of the valve apparatus.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367035)
Aleksandr Volosach, Olga Gorovykh
DETERMINATION OF THE FIRE SOURCE BASED ON THE VALUE OF THE SURFACE HARDNESS OF CELLULAR CONCRETE BLOCKS
The article presents the results of measuring of the residual surface hardness of samples from cellular concrete blocks after thermal exposure to them for 15, 20, 30 minutes and cooling with water followed by drying. The dependence of the change in the residual surface hardness of cellular concrete samples after thermal exposure to them and cooling with water followed by drying has been established. The results of the conducted studies show that the surface hardness of cellular concrete correlates with the magnitude of the acting high temperatures. It has been established that the measurement of the residual surface hardness is most appropriate to be carried out one day after the termination of fire extinguishing work. This method of investigating cellular concrete building structures at the site of a fire can be successfully applied to detect a fire source in conjunction with the results obtained by other methods.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367036)
INTEGRATED QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS IN THE SYSTEM OF CRIMINAL LAW SCIENCES
A methodological approach has been developed to conduct an integrated qualitative and quantitative analysis of interdisciplinary connections in the system of criminal law sciences. The features of the developed methodology are considered on the example of the analysis of interdisciplinary relations of the theory of operational-search activity.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367038)
ORGANIZATIONAL BASIСS FOR ATTRACTING PERSONS WITH SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE TO PARTICIPATE IN OPERATIONAL-SEARCH ACTIVITIES
Some problematic aspects related to the attraction of a specialists to participate in operational-search actions are considered. Based on the analysis of scientific publications, as well as the study of the practice of operational units, it is proposed to classify the circle of persons with special knowledge, based on the organization of the preparation of operational-search actions into groups. The characteristic features of the proposed groups are highlighted. It is concluded that the special knowledge of persons assigned to the first group can be used only to obtain orienting (auxiliary) information, and the special knowledge of persons assigned to other groups can be used both to obtain orienting information and to obtain sources of evidence.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367039)
Anna Khokh, Voskanyan Patvakan, Anna Petrosyan
INDIVIDUAL FEATURES IN THE STRUCTURE OF ANNUAL LAYERS AND THEIR USE TO ESTABLISH THE PLACE OF GROWTH
The article reviews topical issues of dendrochronological examinations. Considering the available scientific developments and expert practice, the ways of improving the theoretical and practical foundations of this type of expert research have been determined. It is shown that a significant role belongs to experimental studies focused on the search for individualizing features. A specific example has proved that, in addition to analyzing graphs of radial growth, it is possible to effectively to use anatomical parameters, as well as deviations in the structure of cells within the annual layers. when determining the place of growth (determining the group affiliation of trees), The authors focus on the importance of constructive cooperation between forensic experts from Belarus and Armenia, which is an important factor in the effectiveness of forensic science activities.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367040)
Vyacheslav Semyonov, Andrey Tetyuev
BLIND PENETRATING WOUND OF THE SKULL WITH A DOWEL-NAIL (A CASE FROM PRACTICE
The article describes a case from practice demonstrating the infliction of a single blind penetrating gunshot wound to the head from a powder-actuated fastening tool (nail gun). Forensic medical examination of injuries caused by atypical projectiles when fired from atypical firearms is a challenging task in some cases. The results of a thorough forensic medical examination of the corpse and the lifetime/postmortem detection of atypical projectiles (foreign objects of different nature) in the victim’s body allow a correct interpretation of the injuries morphological features caused by atypical projectiles and/or atypical firearms.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library E-library.ru ( https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=48367041)