Neuteboom W., Shakel N. V.
History of Cooperation Between Forensic Institutions in the Framework of ENFSI
Exchange of information, best practices and experience lies in the core of successful development of all activities. Forensic examination sphere is no exception to this rule. One of places where such cooperation takes place is European Network of Forensic Science Institutes. Initially an informal «club» of directors of forensic laboratories, it is now an important and highly respected organization which covers almost all European contitent. Nowadays through its annual meetings, expert working groups and other mechanisms experts get new possibilities and knowledge that allow for more effective and scientifically based level of execution of their tasks. Today cooperation between the Republic of Belarus and this organization is developing. This provokes interest to the history of ENFSI creation and development.
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Rossinskaya E. R.
Forensic Expertology as Methodological Basis for Classification of Forensic Examination and of Expert Competence
In the article the theory of classification of forensic examinations to kinds and types and of trends in formation and development of kinds and types of forensic examination, which is part of general theory of forensic expertology. It is noted that modern classifications of forensic examination take into account the object of examination and problems to be solved. Two main trends of genesis of forensic examinations are analyzed: process of enlargement and of division. Problems which arise with emergence of new kinds and types of forensic examination are outlined, including those connected with invovement in the process of examination of scientists that have no knowledge of substantive or procedural legislation. Trends in development of all forensic examinations are studied.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library eLIBRARY.RU https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29045645
Boyarina A. A.
The Question of Procedural Independence of the Expert
This article is devoted to the study of the question of the framework of the procedural expert’s independence from the viewpoint of the influence of opinion of the head of forensic institution on conclusions formulated by the expert (based on the requirements of the Criminal Procedure Law). The characteristics of the expert that differ him from other participant of the process are given. The analysis of situations which can take place in the course of expert practical activities is provided. The algorithm of the actions of the head of the expert institution in the case of his doubts about the validity and reliability of expert opinion is defined.
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Nefedov S. N.
Reform of Forensic Expertise in the United States and Europe
The reform of the judicial examination in the United States and Europe is discussed. A major role in United States in reforming two specially created federal structures: NCFS (engaged in a reform policy) and OSAC (scientific-methodological and practical questions of reform). In Europe the reform is coordinated by ENFSI, which received a monopoly-status in the EU in the field of forensics. In the course of the reform a new paradigm for forensic analysis is formed, which includes the presentation of the results in the form of likelihood ratio and empirical testing of validity and reliability the used methods.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library eLIBRARY.RU https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29045600
Javadyan A. S., Voskanyan P. S.
Scientific Analysis and Prevention of Professional Deformation in Forensic Examination
This article focuses on the concept of professional deformation, objectively leading the development of the individual and his professional activity.
The ten-year experience obtained in National Bureau of Expertises in the course of realizing expertise have been examined, which showed that the objective reason for creating consistently interference in forensic expert activity at the moment, in the first place should be mentioned the absence of standardized operating procedures and processes for many expert disciplines Particular attention is paid to the independent review of expert opinion, which is a promising direction to minimize the causes of errors of both subjective and objective nature. The article demonstrates the necessity of introduction of effective methods of professional selection and training of forensic experts.
The result of the analysis indicates that the objective analysis of the most common causes resulting in professional deformation of the individual is extremely important: the psycho-emotional and/or physical overwork, reduction of professionally significant objectives and/or interests, etc. It proves the fact that the introduction of protocols and algorithms of expertise along with a well-functioning quality control system in the organization and at the same time carrying out complex network management allows to observe the provisions of the judicial and procedural legislation and to minimize the psychological pressure on the expert’s activities.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library eLIBRARY.RU https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29045648
Danchenko E. O., Tetiuev A. M., Dobroriz A. M.
Comparition of the Carboxyhemoglobin Levels in the Sternum Marrow And Blood at Fatal Carbon Monoxide Poisonings
Thе study was carried out on 35 corpses. The sternum bone marrow and blood was investigated for COHb by spectrophotometery. It was found that the absence of CoHb in blood is also negative in marrow. When blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration was 51% to 93% its marrow concentration was 27% to 81%. No significant correlation between blood and marrow COHb concentrations was found. In general, blood levels of COHb were higher narrow levels by 23%.
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Semyonov V. V.
Revisiting the Definition of the Gender Identity of the Skeletal Bones
Identification of personality of the unidentified, dismembered and skeletal corpses is one of the most significant tasks solved by forensic scientists. A successful solution of this task is determined by the state of the subjects analysed, by their number, anatomical affiliation, degree of preservation due to the conditions and time of corpses burial, and by the presence of the considerable antemortem or necrologic damage of corpses. Completeness and accuracy of personal identification by skeletal remains also depends on the volume, scientific validity and finality of the methods used for personal identification, on expert availability and literacy. Cranial osteometric and cranial osteocopic methods allow to determine gender identity of bones, and thus to draw conclusions whether bones belong to one or to more individuals and his, her or their gender characteristics.
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Vodolazov A. V., Starovoytov A. M., Lysyany Y. Y.
Conducting Forensic Researches of Pappilary Prints of Palmar Surfaces by Using Specialized Facilities
The article describes the problem of solving the localization problem of palms area, which form trace of fingertips, during forensic examinations. Description is given of the specialized facilities created by the authors of article, the use of which greatly simplifies localization. The additional features and tools of specialized facilities intended for research of fingerprints details first and second levels are described. Advantages of the use of specialized tools in the preparation of illustrative and additional materials to the conclusion of an expert are mentioned.
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Rostovskaya A. V.
The Use of the Linguistic Knowledge at Disclosure and Investigation of Speech Crimes (Slander, Insult) Committed Against Officers of Internal Affairs Bodies
The article covers the issues of the possibility of using the special linguistic knowledge to the text analysis containing signs correlating with legal concepts of «slander», «insult». Rethorical and constructive ways of showing negative estimation, with relevant example, are provided by the author. Specific issues of studying poly-coded texts are examined. Questions of linguistic competence at identifying forensic meaningful information are studied.
Nevero A. S.
Establishing of State Control Over Trafficking of New Psychoactive Substances in The Republic of Belarus
The concept of the most rapid response to emergence of new types of drugs trafficking is the foundation of the Belarusian anti-drug legislation. This approach is most effective in preventing the spread of new psychoactive substances. The article provides an overview of procedures of establishing state control over the trafficking of new psychoactive substances, implemented in the Republic of Belarus, and explains the definitions of «analogues of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances» and «base structure», which are approved at the legislative level.
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Kofanov A. V.
Application of Scattered Corpuscular Radiation Method in Forensic Ballistic Investigations (Using Workstation «KORID»
The article discusses some aspects of the method of corpuscular radiation scattered in the preliminary studies of spent shells and shell casings from a firearm in the field and laboratory conditions. We consider the historiography and conditions of creating workstation «KORID». Illustrative calculations are presented (tables), which were obtained during the experiments, expert in criminal proceedings related to the use of firearms (with the above mentioned method). Briefly stated possibilities, features and advantages of the above method. Announced reasoned opinion of the author of untapped opportunities, relevance and timeliness of equipment, workstations «KORID» mobile forensic labs for the work in the field, as well as stationary forensic ballistic laboratories.
Kanyuka E. Y., Yakushevskaya I. V., Taran M. I.
On role of specialist-biologist on crime scene in the work of expert service of Ukraine
The article deals with the historical background of biological specialization and its introduction as an independent unit in the staff structure of the Expert Service of Ukraine. The authors analyze the importance of involving a professional biologist to inspect a crime scene, and assisting in the investigation. The forming of the biological units in the Expert Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Ukraine has been considered. The necessity to involve professional biologists in investigating the objects of biological origin in operatively-search activity and directly on the spot is emphasized.