Lapina I. A.
EDUCATION OF FORENSIC EXPERTS AS ONE OF THE MAIN TASKS OF THE STATE FORENSIC EXAMINATION COMMITTEE
The appropriate training and retraining of forensic experts is of a paramount importance for all the participants of the law-enforcement activities. The fact that the person who is to perform the forensic examination has proper qualifications and knowledge not only of the sphere of his expertise, but also of civil, economic, administrative and criminal procedure gives the respective bodies the assurance that they adopt well-based and justified decisions. In this regard the State Forensic Examination Committee of the Republic of Belarus is performing the professional training and education of individuals that want to be forensic experts. In the article the basis for such educational activities are given, the history is briefly outlined, modern approaches to its performance are provided, and the perspectives of further development are shown, including in the framework of educating of foreign experts.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403174
Smolski A. P.
THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF FORENSIC EXAMINATION TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF REHABILITATION PLANS
The article considers the possibility of determining the validity of rehabilitation plans through forensic examination. Some features of legal regulation of forensic examination in bankruptcy cases are shown, as well as questions, answers to which are interesting for the courts. The analysis of the theoretical conceptions of the forensic examination is carried out, on the basis of which the possibility of determining the validity of rehabilitation plans through forensic economic expertise is shown. Some limitations are highlighted, related to the specifics of conclusions and abilities of experts. The methodological bases of carrying out such examinations are presented, including questions for the expert’s statement, the content and methods of research, possible conclusions. It is shown that it is advisable to investigate the financial and economic situation of the debtor; the form, structure and content of the rehabilitation plan; compliance with the legislation of the measures proposed in the plan; the correctness and validity of plan calculations; reporting and planned indicators of the debtor’s activity and financial state.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403175
Khokh A. N., Halauniova A. I., Koltovich D. A.
APPROACHES ТО THE DETERMINATION OF THE TREE SPECIES AFFILIATION BASED ON SPECTROMETRIC INFORMATION
Illegal forest management is rightly one of the most difficult for investigation offences. In this regard, there is a growing need to find new and more effective methods for obtaining evidentiary information. This article shows the possibility and describes some approaches to application of spectroscopic methods for species affiliation of felled wood, presents the results of the experimental research carried out, and indicates some specific features of softwood identification. The scheme of multidimensional statistical analysis by the method of the main components of infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy is proposed, which makes it possible to differentiate coniferous trees that are genetically related: Scots pine, Norway spruce, silver fir, European larch and blue spruce.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403176
Ji Meijun, Wang Ran
THE USE OF SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE IN BIG DATA ANALYSIS FOR PREVENTION AND INVESTIGATION OF CORRUPTION
Application of big data analysis is starting to be an issue of paramount importance for law-enforcement agencies, especially those involved in investigation of highly latent crimes such as corruption. The traces of such crime are sometimes vague, and the determination of crime facts is causing problems. The authors point out that big data subvert the traditional idea of causal relationship, however it can give various clues and important details. Such information can be extremely valuable in investigation of certain crimes. To illustrate this, the authors give some examples from Chinese experience where big data analysis helped to convict suspects incorruption crimes.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403177
Shved A. I.
INTERRELATION OF THE THEORY OF FORENSIC EXAMINATION WITH OTHER BRANCHES OF SCIENCE
In the article, on the basis of analysis of historical development and modern realities, the author emphasizes that without determining the role and place of the theory of forensic examination in the system of sciences it is impossible to organize full-fledged scientific developments in the field of forensic examination to ensure complex application of scientific knowledge. The specific importance is given to the differentiation between criminalistics and forensic expert activity, as well as to the specific features of their interaction with the forensic medicine. The article analyzes the history of appearance and essence of the concept of «forensic expert technologies». The necessity of introducing changes into the nomenclature of specialties of scientists in the Republic of Belarus was substantiated in relation to the allocation of forensic and expert activities into a separate specialty. The author views it as an important step in integrating knowledge into the field of forensic examination and in creating conditions for its further effective development.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403178
Dmitrieva K. S.
PROBLEMS IN CONDUCTING EXPERTISES IN THE SPHERE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
The process of requesting materials of applications for registration of intellectual property objects should be made simpler and more effective. The author proposes to give forensic experts the right to apply directly to the Ministry of Economic Development of Ukraine to obtain the necessary information. To solve the problem of the lack of common research methods, to prevent additional questions and to avoid doubts about the validity of the results of the conducted studies it is proposed that the expert should, in the expert opinion, fully describe the research methods used, taking into account that the addressee has no special knowledge.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403179
Asayonok B. V., Verenchikov I. R.
CONCEPT AND CONTENT OF SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE IN ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
This article is about the questions of special knowledge definition in administrative procedure. During the researching process authors made a conviction that using of word «special competence» is more correct from the legal point of view. The main features of special competence in administrative procedure are their attributive meaning to the official who conducts that procedure and its non-procedural character.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403180
Panovitsyn A. M.
ON SPECIFIC FEATURES OF OBTAINING DIGITAL MATERIAL EVIDENCE FROM MODERN DEVICES OF CELLULAR MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS
In the article features of research of means of cellular mobile telecommunication by means of program-technical complexes are considered. The author reveals the possibility of extracting criminalistically significant information from operating systems and applications of cellular communication devices. It is noted that such evidence can be obtained both directly from the mobile device, and through personal computers and cloud services. Information is also provided on the possible applications of the data in practice. Examples are given which show that this data makes it possible to establish the person’s social connections, his routes of movement during certain periods of time, or to get important information about his plans and their completion.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403181
Kirvel V. K.
FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS: ISSUE OF ARTIFICIAL PAPILLARY PICTURES
The article dwells upon theoretical and applied aspects, and also prospects for development of fingerprint analysis. Production technologies of models with artificial papillary picture are described (falsification of a finger papillary picture prints). The author presents the results of experiments which consisted in the creation of a fingernail bones model with artificial papillary picture with the usage of biometric technology. Some measures aiming at countering falsification of fingerprints (pappilary patterns) are proposed.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403182
Tatykhodjaeva Z. S.
FORENSIC-PSYCHIATRIC EXPERT EVALUATION OF VASCULAR COGNITIVE DISORDERS IN THE CIVIL PROCESS
The article presents modern literary data on the features and special complexity of the expert evaluation of late-life psychiatric pathology. The analysis of 56 forensic psychiatric expert studies on civil cases on the recognition of transactions as invalid is presented. Among the contingent of the surveyed, the majority (78.6%) were over 65 years of age, 40% of these expert studies were posthumously. The methodological bases of the study of the influence of cognitive disorders on the ability to understand the significance of the actions performed and to guide them in a legally significant situation are reflected. The main principles of diagnostics and approaches to the expert evaluation of vascular cognitive disorders are outlined. Nosological variants of vascular cognitive disorders, their classification and differentiated approaches to their expert evaluation are considered. Algorithms for making an expert decision in the forensic psychiatric evaluation of these mental disorders are suggested, which make it possible to increase the efficiency of conducting an expert study.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403183
Zaluzhny G. I., Krivitskiy A. M., Makas O. G., Kastsiukovich V. S.
PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF USING THE BOSCH-CDR IN THE INVESTIGATION OF ROAD ACCIDENTS
This article discusses the possibility to use the information contained in the memory of electronic control units of vehicles which will increase the reliability of conclusions auto-technical expertise. The need to use modern technologies to study the records of electronic on-board systems in the investigation of road accidents is underlined. The tendencies of development and application of Bosch-CDR complex are analyzed. The complex is a combination of hardware and software to provide access to pre-emergency and emergency vehicle data that can be stored in passenger car, light truck and / or off-road vehicle modules. A practical example of obtaining the initial data necessary for carrying out the autotechnical expertise using the Bosch-SDR complex is given.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403184
Bulavina E. N., Bulavina D.
METHODS OF BIOLOGICAL INDICATION IN DETERMINATION OF THE QUALITY OF NATURAL WATERS UNDER FORENSIC ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERTISE
In the system of ecological monitoring of surface waters and bottom sediments there has been recently a transition from purely chemical methods to biological methods which allow assessing the combined effect of various environmental factors. The main elements of biological monitoring of the environment are biotesting and bioindication. Benthic invertebrates are one of the most common objects in the system of biomonitoring of the ecological state of water bodies. Four stages of the research are studied: analysis of information about the water body, establishment of requirements for reference lines of the water body (not subject to anthropogenic influence), selection of biological samples, application of methods of calculation of biotic indices. Any biomonitoring technique involves the identification of taxonomy of the organisms found. Several methods of water quality analysis have been developed, which use the indicator properties of large taxa of zoobenthos. A methodical approach in solving the issue of surface water quality in the framework of forensic environmental assessment is proposed. Recommendations on study of macrozoobenthos with the indices of saprobity, Goodnight-Whitley, Woodiwiss Trent Biotic Index (TBI), Meyer are given. So, bioindication with the help of macrozoobenthos can help in establishing indicators of «ecosystem's health», which can be detected in the field during the judicial environmental assessment.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403185
Lappo E. A.
THE USE OF TRACES OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGIN IN SOLUTION OF GRAVE AND ESPECIALLY GRAVE CRIMINAL OFFENCES
The article is devoted to literature review of molecular markers developed for plant DNA with the purpose of species identification, geographic origin and plants individualizing. Prospects of molecular markers use in forensic botany are shown for plants of genus Cannabis.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403186
Semyonov V. V.
IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIES OF ARCHEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY
The need to identify fragmented skeletal remains arises not only in forensic medical practice, but also in archaeology and paleoanthropology. Identification begins with the identification of species that an object of research belongs to. It is very problematic, in the case of finely-fragmented native and charred bones. A conclusion about the belonging of the remains to a person makes the basis for further identification (sex, racial group, etc.). The article presents the case of determining the species of origin of osteologic remains discovered during archaeological excavations on the ancient encampment area dated from around 26,500 BC.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403187
Polyakov Y. S., Mikhniuk O. N., Hilkevich T. Y., Chevtchouk T. A., Yurchenko R. A., Vinarskiy V. A.
ANALYTICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND IDENTIFICATION OF MODAFINIL AND ADRAFINIL IN THE OBJECTS OF EXAMINATION
Modafinil and adrafinil are medicinal substances used for non-medical purposes to improve concentration and memory, as well as doping substances in sports. Due to non-medical use, these substances are subject to state control in many countries. It is shown that modafinil and adrafinil decompose to form the same artifacts for both substances under gas-liquid chromatography. The main characteristic artifacts were identified using the NIST spectral library. The conditions of isolation from the pharmaceutical drugs to pure form of modafinil and adrafinil were selected. Experimental data of the properties of these substances, the differences which can be used for identification mentioned compounds in the objects of examination by experts were obtained.
The full text of the article is available in the free scientific digital library https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36403188